Not Related!

Popper, Soros and the Open Society

Season 2, Episode 5

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Karl Popper, known for his concept of falsifiability in the philosophy of science, also was a somewhat influential political thinker in his time. Popper endorsed what he called "the Open Society," a liberal democratic society based on abstract and depersonalized material connections, instead of direct social relationships.

This vision was particularly influential on one of Popper's now famous students, George Soros, who would go on to use his significant wealth won in financial markets to found the Open Society Foundation, a significant source of funds for leftist political agitation and pressure in America and Europe. Soros's worldview has somewhat departed from Popper's, with an emphasis on what Soros calls reflexivity, the principle that in human domains, our theories of world affect the world itself.

Myth as Science and Prehistoric Knowledge: Hamlet's Mill

Season 2, Episode 4

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Known history is less than 1% of the time humans have inhabited earth, and thus most of our past survives only in the partial evidence of myth, genetics and badly decayed archaeological remains. In particular, mythology is not just a collection of arbitrary stories, but as the authors of Hamlet's Mill argue, it is a long-lost theoretical language used to store astronomical and scientific knowledge.

While we all know that myth can store relevant information in a memorable format, it can also embed very specific details of a preexisting system of knowledge also attested in archaeoastronomy, even in well-known sites like Stonehenge, the "neolithic calculator" which shows astronomical knowledge far more precise than that of any average person of today.

The reason the earliest philosophical and religious mythology seems absurd or opaque to us is partially because it is speaking in a jargon which has been lost, like alchemy or primeval sciences. In the right context, we can see a long tradition of knowledge preserved from at least the Stone Age.

📚 See readings and other media.

Note that pay-walled academic articles may be obtained by feeding their URLs to sites like Sci-Hub.

  • Hamlet's Mill: An Essay Investigating the Origins of Human Knowledge and Its Transmission Through Myth (Giorgio de Santillana & Hertha von Dechend)
  • The Origins of Scientific Thought: from Anazimander to Proclus, 600 B.C. to 300 A.D. (Giorgio de Santillanna)
  • Stonehenge: A Neolithic Computer (Gerald Hawkins)
  • Learn the Ancient Babylonian Math System! (YouTube video series)
🕓 See timecodes and topics.0:00:00 Issuing an Extension on Human Prehistory
0:02:24 An Argument from Plausibility for R*ddit Soyentists
0:05:17 Constant Emergence of Civilization
0:06:31 Myth as the Science of Prehistory
0:07:44 I hate Hamlet's Mill.
0:10:12 Which came first: the Planets or the Gods?
0:11:50 Astronomical Myths in India and the Vedic Tradition
0:15:28 On Al-Biruni and his bad pronunciation
0:18:00 Mythology as technical language
0:20:40 Hamlet's Mill and the Precession of the Equinox
0:23:15 Hamlet and his story and Cosmic Mill
0:27:15 Hyperdiffusionism
0:30:24 Donations
0:31:21 On podcast length and density again
0:33:15 Why .ogg instead of .mp3?
0:36:08 Thor Heyerdahl
0:38:40 The Polynesian discovery of America, physical and genetic evidence
0:43:16 Aboriginal Australians discover America in prehistory.
0:50:20 On Denisovans and Homo erectus
0:51:55 Diversion on Solutreans in Europe
0:53:50 On alchemy and technical language
0:56:19 Hipparchus and Babylonian astronomy
0:57:25 Ancient Memes we use every day
0:59:50 How many degrees are in a circle?
1:01:20 Babylonian Math
1:03:51 Full development of science in prehistory
1:04:25 Panini's Ashtadhyayi and its deductive predecessors
1:06:52 The Memory Code by Lynne Kelly
1:08:41 The Cosmos and Ancient Astronomy
1:09:49 Stonehenge as a Neolithic Calculator
1:12:25 Poverty Point
1:13:12 Closing on the Precession of the Equinoxes

Myth as History: Rohl's New Chronology

Season 2, Episode 3

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In one fell swoop, Egyptologist David Rohl has posited a change in Egyptian chronology that takes both Greek mythical history and the stories of the Bible out of idle lore and into historical plausibility.

By cutting and rearranging some 300 years of "dark ages," Rohl suggests that there is no gap between the legendary times of the Trojan War and the later historical Dorian Invasion. He also posits that very specific Biblical stories, such as the sojourn in Egypt, Exodus, the conquest of Canaan and the Kingdom of Israel have ample historical evidence if we start looking in Egypt's Middle Kingdom Period.

Note also that you can now support Not Related! by donating at Monthly pledges will only be charged at the start of the month if two episodes have been released in the previous month.

📚 See readings and other media.

Note that pay-walled academic articles may be obtained by feeding their URLs to sites like Sci-Hub.

  • The Lords of Avaris (David Rohl)
  • Exodus: Myth or History? (David Rohl)
  • Patterns of Evidence (an Evangeliboomer apologetical documentary series on the Bible which in part features Rohl's revised chronology)
🕓 See timecodes and topics.0:00:00 Introduction
0:00:45 Not Related! Is Back! (
0:01:23 Rohl's New Chronology: Antidote to Mediocrity
0:03:46 The Boring Side of Chronology (Dating Pharaohs)
0:04:42 The History of the Historicity of Bible
0:06:19 The Story of Genesis in 30 Seconds
0:07:00 Genesis DEBOONKED? Traditional Chronology
0:08:56 Hebrew Israelites in the Middle Kangdom
0:10:43 Joseph's House
0:12:24 Bahr Yussef and the Sad Pharaohs
0:14:53 Evidence of Exodus and the Hyksos
0:16:46 Jericho
0:18:00 Biblical Minimalism and "Critical" Scholarship
0:23:03 Amarna Letters, Saul, David, Jonathan
0:25:35 Boomer Documentaries
0:27:44 No Risk Not Related! Funding (
0:29:42 Not Related! Size
0:30:35 Wittgenstein's TLP and Philosophical Investigations
0:31:30 t'Hooft as Chomsky and Amateur Spirit in Science
0:34:44 Graham Hancock and rigor
0:35:56 Marija Gimbutas and the Mother Goddess and Chalice and Blade
0:38:21 Soyence and "Skeptics"
0:39:55 Greek Mythology and the Trojan War
0:46:11 The Greek Dark Age and Greek Lineages
0:50:40 The Lords of Avaris, the Greeks and Hyksos
0:56:08 Greek Myth as Egyptian History
0:58:53 Cadmus, the Greek Alphabet and Hieroglyphs
1:04:47 Is the Aeneid just fan-fiction?
1:07:59 My personal assessment
1:12:15 What's to come in Not Related!

Stoicism and Christianity: Trust the Logos!

Season 2, Episode 2

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The Word became flesh and dwelt among us.

Christian theology has a mostly dusty and forgotten belonging among the Pagan philosophy of the Greek east and the early Roman Empire. While Platonic, Hermetic and Gnostic thought all reinforced or butted heads with the Early Church, Stoic thought provides some of the most important vocabulary used in the Bible, particularly by John the Evangelist.

This viewpoint presents Jesus as not the incarnation of Logos, the rational order of the universe itself, but also as the Stoic ideal. The plan of Christ is to reunite man with God's order, in the same way that Stoics attempted to submit to divine Logos.

Against Method and For 'Pseudoscience'

Season 2, Episode 1

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Paul Feyerabend argued for 'Epistemological Anarchism': that in order to do truly good science, one can't rule out alternative methods, ad hoc hypotheses, mythology, religion and wishful thinking. Using the example of Galileo, he shows how science's greatest strides are made by deliberately being "unscientific" in the way that court scientists tend to think nowadays.

Epistemological Anarchism is a total rejection of the so-called "demarcation problem": the attempt by early 20th century philosophers to distinguish "science" from other realms. It overturns the assumptions of logical positivism and returns us to the conception of knowledge held by antiquity, the scholastics, the Renaissance and everyone else: science can't rule out its perceived opponents by technicality or it would have also undermined the very "pseudoscientists" that developed us our scientific conceptions of today.

📚 See readings and other media.

Note that pay-walled academic articles may be obtained by feeding their URLs to sites like Sci-Hub.

Season 2 Begins: Live from the Wild!

Season 2, Episode 0

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The long-awaited second season begins.

What will it have in store? We'll find out soon. Be sure to consoooom previous episodes if you're new as some new episodes, while no doubt highly edifying on their own, will build off of previous episodes.

Remember that question-donations are read at the mid-episode break. You can donate at I also welcome suggestions for subjects to cover.

The Flaws of Academic Statistics: the Null Ritual

Season 1, Episode 8

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Nearly every academic paper published since the 1960s has used statistics known to be faulty.

That sounds extreme, but it's actually not even controversial in the statistical literature.

In the 1950s, Ronald Fisher invented a statistical technique to solve the philosophical Problem of Induction. Neyman and Pearson developed a technique for statistical quality control in factories. Yet somehow, these two techniques were confused and merged into the Null Ritual of today, which is the neurotic pattern that every paper in many disciplines have to follow.

The Null Ritual is one of the clearest examples of academic consensus so far off the tracks that scholar treat the techniques in textbooks were religious devotion, rather than with critical awareness of what they are actually supposed to be. The end result? Nearly every field is rife with misuse of numbers, publication bias, misunderstandings and fake conclusions.

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Note that pay-walled academic articles may be obtained by feeding their URLs to sites like Sci-Hub.

Human Evolution Revised: Timelines and Multiregionalism

Season 1, Episode 7

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The past ten years... even the past five years... even the past two and a half years have totally rewritten a lot of the story of human prehistory. In this episode we review a large lump of scientific papers, few having made it into popular culture or general knowledge so far, but all painting a picture of human prehistory that is much deeper and longer than the old theorists behind recent Out-of-Africa migration theories.

We talk about human settlements in unexpected places and unexpected times, hidden genetic lineages and Neanderthal seafaring, language and construction. Too often do the "Well, actually!" crowd focus on listening to partial evidence instead of using their head, and we see how this has harmed the theories in the field of paleo-history. Soon, we'll move the microscope closer to home and talk about what early humans might've been up to all that time...

📚 See readings and other media.

Note that pay-walled academic articles may be obtained by feeding their URLs to sites like Sci-Hub.

🕓 See timecodes and topics.0:00 Introduction
2:14 The Old Story of Human Evolution (Recent East African Origin)
5:55 Philosophical Problems, bias and Absence of Evidence is not Evidence of Absence! Muh evidence-based worldview.
8:58 Uniparental markers: mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal DNA and Haplogroups
12:32 Genghis Khan as the last man on earth. What if he had weak genes?
15:22 Muh Toba erruption is Fake News
16:48 The appeal of out of Africa
19:00 New archeological finds in the old strawman hypothesis
20:56 Genetic analysis of Bushmen
23:18 Early Humans in Arabia and Southeast Asia
25:25 Destruction of Evidence and the Lost Land of Sundaland
27:50 The Settlement of America and Preclovis cultures
33:57 Donations and Livestreams
35:05 Not the only humans
36:00 What are Neanderthals?
38:25 Denisovans
39:25 Were Neanderthals actually dumb grugs? (Seafaring)
42:27 Neanderthal cave constructions
45:49 Could Neanderthals and other speak? FOXP2
48:27 The General View of Multiregionalism and the scale of history
52:26 Morphological clades between old human varieties and modern races
55:30 The Red-Pill on Asian people
56:16 Conclusion and "Wuz we Hyperboreans?" teaser

When You're Too Rational to Be Rational!

Season 1, Episode 6

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Are humans rational? What would that even mean? Does it mean we follow the laws of formal logic, or does it mean we only care about getting a positive end result? Some modern psychologists, often in the vein of the Heuristics and Biases Program (à la Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky) often implicitly assume that these are the same thing, that humans are often gravely miscalibrated in our sense of reason. We are logically broken. Some, proponents of Libertarian Paternalism, propose that this illogicalness should be actively mitigated by governmental policy and Nudging (see Cass Sunstein and Richard Thaler's book Nudge).

But another line of thought, Ecological Rationality holds that what seems "irrational" about human behavior is only an artifact of when we fail to look at our decision-making in improper circumstances in the laboratory. What aspects of our psychology seem irrational are often mechanisms based in the wisdom of real-life risk, and far more trust-worthy than the recommendations of psychologists and behavioral economists. Sometimes even, our irrational mind is much smarter than we are.

📚 See readings and other media.

Note that pay-walled academic articles may be obtained by feeding their URLs to sites like Sci-Hub.

🕓 See timecodes and topics.0:00 Rationality for Big-Braned Mortals
3:12 The Heuristics and Biases Program and System 1 and System 2 in Psychology
7:12 Experimentations in Human Irrationality and Cognitive Illusions, the Baseball Bat example
10:05 On 250% Chances
12:16 Priming, framing and making money selling washing machines
15:27 Biases, risks and the Hard-Easy effect
17:32 A summary of Kahneman and Tversky's program
18:55 I know this model isn't real... implicatures and Linda the feminist bank-teller
25:23 Donations (
27:58 tfw when too rational to be rational??? Seeds of doubt
29:05 Formally rational vs. rational in the real world
31:14 Ecological Rationality and the Adaptive Toolbox
33:51 Formal logic is for autistes and NPCs
37:33 Reconstructing human rationality in the light of uncertainty, Black Swans
40:37 Returning to the Hard-Easy effect and regression to the epistemological mean
41:43 The ploy of Heuristics and Biases program
42:39 Richard Dawkins plays basebal with the gaze heuristic.
45:34 The border between Systems 1 and 2 and the Paradox of Choice and overfitting
50:23 Feyerabend vs. Gould
53:11 Core assumptions
54:03 What Darwin Got Wrong in the Heuristics and Biases program and emergence
58:50 Libertarian Paternalism and Nudgebois, social engineering and inevitable ignorance
1:04:11 Closing

The Agricultural Revolution Has Been A Disaster for the Human Race.

Season 1, Episode 5

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Whig History is one hell of a drug. In our cocoon of electronic toys and United Nations statistics about how great the world is, it might sound absurd to say that by many of the most crucial metrics, human life has become measurably worse since man adopted agriculture. Our bodies, our metabolism, our social structure, our psychology and our deepest desires are built for paleolithic life, but now that that life has been nearly entirely abandoned, we find ourselves thoroughly unfit for the marvelous technology that defines our new environment, and environment which is changing far faster than we can keep up.

Even worse, the comfort of modernity is putting us in potentially disastrous evolutionary circumstances. We are accumulating harmful mutations, while at the same time, becoming more mentally cloistered. In this episode we look at Gregory Cochran and Henry Harpending's The 10,000 Year Explosion, Spencer Wells' Pandora's Seed and Michael Woodley's work on mutational load.

📚 See readings and other media.

Note that pay-walled academic articles may be obtained by feeding their URLs to sites like Sci-Hub.

🕓 See timecodes and topics.0:00 The Agricultural Revolution Has Been a Disaster for the Human Race
1:48 Spencer Well's Pandora's Seed
4:32 Cochran and Harpending's 10,000 Year Explosion
6:31 Creating a world we don't match
8:13 Roadmap
9:05 Are we living too long for our bodies?
13:04 Causes of death
16:44 Meme diets
18:06 Where do manlets come from?
20:53 Homogenization of the agricultural diet
22:56 Different racial genetic accomodations to agricultural diets
27:13 Luke rationalizes not brushing his teeth.
29:24 The Red-Pill on Mouth-Breathing
32:02 Get me a Birthday Present! (
32:52 Why this isn't a book club
36:00 Self-Domestication
39:58 We're all Soyboys.
42:33 Genetic Pacification in Europe
44:32 Why Chinese don't have ADHD
47:09 Mad Geniuses
49:50 Hawks, Doves and violence as social contribution
53:35 Mutational Load, Founding Effects and Congenital Diseases (also Jews)
58:48 Eugenics isn't enough
1:00:08 Intelligence, g, IQ and the Flynn Effect
1:04:02 In defense of Child Mortality and Inceldom
1:07:46 Afrikangz confirmed for genetically superior
1:09:39 The Cycle of Civilization
1:13:17 Closing

Democracy: Rule of the NPCs

Season 1, Episode 4

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Does anyone even pretend to believe in democracy anymore?

As the veil of perfection of liberal democracy is now generally acknowledged to be in tatters, it's about time for normal people to start looking mechanically at what democracy really is.

In this episode, we explore the structure of a party system in democracy, Bryan Caplan (in Myth of the Rational Voter) argues that people are not randomly stupid, but systematically stupid, James Burham (in The Machiavellians: The Defenders of Freedom) tells us about Dante and the real meaning of political ideology, and SJWs absolutely annihilate Ben Shapiro and bulldoze his house down.

📚 See readings and other media.

Note that pay-walled academic articles may be obtained by feeding their URLs to sites like Sci-Hub.

  • The Myth of the Rational Voter (Bryan Caplan)
  • Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy (Joseph Schumpeter)
  • What's Wrong with Democracy? (Loren J. Samons)
  • "Dante's Politics as Wish" (James Burnham, an excerpt from The Machiavellians: The Defenders of Freedom)
  • De Monarchia (Dante Alighieri)
🕓 See timecodes and topics.0:00 Intro
4:11 "Everyone but me is dumb and irrational!"
7:27 The Arisalment of Public Choice and Rational Ignorance
11:43 Democracy BTFO?
12:52 The Miracle of Aggregation and the Wisdom of the Crowds
17:21 The Democracy of Occupy Wallstreet
19:42 Bryan Caplan's the Myth of the Rational Voter
20:17 Rational Irrationality
22:17 Systematically Brainlets?
28:29 The Origin of Political Biases
30:08 You can Donate Bitcoin now
31:14 Emails
33:30 The Urban-Rural divide in American politics
35:48 Mitchell Heisman
36:53 Muh pronouns
42:43 Schumpeter on Public Will
45:23 Logic is a Spook
46:47 James Burnham's the Machiavellian's: The Defenders of Freedom
47:19 Dante's De Monarchia
49:30 The Real Meaning of politics and persuasion
56:36 Schumpeter's Theory of Democracy as Government-seeking
59:49 de Tocqueville's Great and Small Parties
1:02:42 The Inanity of Third Parties
1:05:49 Caplan's propositions for democracy
1:08:55 Gee Bill! How come your mom lets you have TWO votes?
1:10:42 Democratic localism
1:13:37 Closing

Albion's Seed & an Ethnic History of America

Season 1, Episode 3

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The Eternal Anglo comes in many shapes and sizes! And America is made not of a homogeneous group of Britons, but at least four systematically different ethnic groups varying by social values, dialect, dress, gender relationships, religion, worldview. These ethnic groups create the regionalisms of today's America and also have affected superstrate populations after them.

This episode surveys David Hackett Fischer's monumental work Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America. We talk not only about these four ethnic groups, which will sound very familiar, but also on a history of the United States, particularly its most significant political battles, interpreted through this ethnic lens.

🕓 See timecodes and topics.0:00 The End of End of History
1:43 Albion's Seed
3:08 Intro and organization
4:22 Brief survey of the four groups
9:21 How to write a term paper.
10:05 The Eternal Puritan, their Moral Consensus and Ethnostate
17:23 Patriarcha!
21:53 Thot Patrol and Incel Rage
25:57 We wuz aristocrats?
30:40 Open Borders for Pennsylvania! ( ͡° ͜ʖ ͡°)
32:18 What are thoumst even talking about?
35:17 The Borderer
42:39 Back already
43:21 Bugmanism
45:40 THICC Donations
46:56 What is capitalism to Schumpeter?
49:16 RIP Terry Davis
50:12 Comments from the Cryptonomicon
51:53 Back to Albion's Seed: MUH FREEDOM
1:00:27 An Ethnic History of the United States
1:03:24 Andrew Jackson
1:08:09 Abraham Lincoln and the Civil War
1:11:32 Postwar Puritan Supremacy
1:13:04 Reconstruction: PURTIANS GET OUT
1:15:50 Border Nationalism Now!
1:17:30 Regionalism and the New Deal Coalition
1:20:10 DR3 and the Party Inversions
1:27:37 Non-white Immigration, Hart Celler Act
1:29:18 Obama and Trump
1:35:55 Finishing up Democracy

Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy

Season 1, Episode 2

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Joseph Schumpeter, self-described "greatest lover in all Vienna" penned the book Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy, which not only still serves as an insightful rejoinder to mainstream economics, but also might be Patient 0 for the ironic Black Pill.

Schumpeter dismisses the autistic formalism of perfect competition and market modeling and casts the economy as a battle not for a stagnant market positions, but a gradual, evolving system whose main goal is the development of new means of production and the overthrowing of their inefficient predecessors, a process he termed Creative Destruction. Monopolistic competition is the natural state of the market, and desirable at that. He also prophecies the end of capitalism as we know it, but also the rise of a socialist government which might look a little more familiar than we anticipate...

📚 See readings and other media.

Note that pay-walled academic articles may be obtained by feeding their URLs to sites like Sci-Hub.

  • Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy (Joseph Schumpeter)
  • The Economics of Imperfect Competition (Joan Robinson)
  • General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money (John Maynard Keynes)
🕓 See timecodes and topics.00:00 Introduction to Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy and Joseph Schumpeter
01:36 What level of irony are you on?
03:16 The Invention of the Black-pill
04:14 Name-dropping
05:20 The Context: Socialism and Keynes
08:49 Schumpeter on Capitalism
10:14 Capitalism and Inequality (Le 99% Face)
12:33 The Virgin Perfect Competition
17:46 Profits are people too!
19:44 The Virgin Equilibrium
21:26 Agree and Amplify! Creative Destruction
25:06 How Capitalism Causes Autism
27:20 Why Soyboys and Catladies don't have children or the Holy Grail
29:45 Hostile Elites and European-Style Socialists
33:26 Daddy, why is my schoolteacher a communist?
36:10 Donate:
37:44 Comments on the Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind
39:45 Luke responds to an NPC
47:41 The Rise of Socialism (but ironically)
48:56 Can my version of True Socialism survive?
49:14 This is where we talk about von Mises (libertarians will click here)
53:25 Cargo Cult Capitalism
55:09 China as Schumpeterian Socialism
55:56 Schumpeter as Troll
56:52 Mises again
58:24 "Da Socialists r da real Capitalists!"

The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind

Season 1, Episode 1

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Inspired by the vastly different mindset and cultural and religious structure of ancient civilizations, the psychologist Julian Jaynes put for the radical notion of the Bicameral Mind, which posits that ancient people, indeed all people in their more natural environment are not actually conscious.

Consciousness, to Jaynes, was a mental habit that gradually developed in the period after the Bronze Age collapse, around 1200 BC. Before that, the two hemispheres of the brain were separate, and mental deliberation appeared to people as divine inspiration.

As utterly mad as this theory first sounds, the cultural, psychological, archaeological and linguistic evidence for it is grounds for more than a pause. Join us for a journey through the Iliad, Mesopotamia, the oldest prophets of the Bible and more on the first episode of Not Related!.

🕓 See timecodes and topics.0:00 The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind
10:00 Consciousness generally
17:11 Consciousness and qualia
19:43 What should we expect from the Bicameral Mind
22:39 Emails and User Comments Economics, quantitative methods, Marxism, Big-Branded Nihilism, Emergence, Are rocks conscious?, J.F. Gariepy, Don't go to college.
34:00 A Greek Vocabulary Lesson
38:57 Le Bronze-Age Collapse Mindset (the Chad Achilles)
43:05 The Eternal Odysseus and Solon
44:50 Whomst are all these voices in my head?
46:53 The Trump inside your head
48:28 How to Organize a Bicameral Theocracy (Not saying it was aliens, but...)
54:39 Amos and Ecclesiastes
57:53 The Rise of the Fedora in the Middle East
59:28 The Words for the Bicameral Voices
1:01:46 Prophecy
1:07:20 Music and Poetry
1:10:40 Psychological states, schizophrenia and possession
1:11:43 The best of the theory and lacunae
1:14:58 Extensions and the Julian Jaynes Society
1:16:17 Big-Braned Levels of Consciousness
1:18:00 Anime pillows

An Introduction to Not Related! and to Luke Smith

Season 1, Episode 0

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Luke introduces his self and the podcast and the principles and reasons behind it.